PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSES

 ALBUMEN PRINT

The albumen print, also called albumen silver print, was published in January 1847 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, and was the first commercially exploitable method of producing a photographic print on a paper base from a negative.

 

 

 

AMBROTYPE

The ambrotype, also known as a collodion positive in the UK, is a positive photograph on glass made by a variant of the wet plate collodion process. Like a print on paper, it is viewed by reflected light.

 

 

 

ARISTOTYPE

The gelatin aristotype, also known as P.O.P. (Printing Out Paper) or citrate paper, was introduced in 1882 by the Englishman William de Abney and was mostly used by amateurs.

 

 

CABINET CARD

The cabinet card was a style of photograph which was widely used for photographic portraiture after 1870. It consisted of a thin photograph mounted on a card typically measuring 108 by 165 mm ( 414 by  612 inches).

 

 

CARTE DE VISITE

The carte de visite abbreviated CdV, was a type of small photograph patented in Paris by photographer André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri  in 1854. The size of a carte de visite is 54.0 mm (2.125 in) × 89 mm (3.5 in) mounted on a card sized 64 mm (2.5 in) × 100 mm (4 in).




DAGUERREOTYPE

The daguerreotype was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used. A daguerreotype is a copper plate covered with a thin layer of polished silver that looks like a mirror when held at a certain angle.

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PHOTOCHROM

Photochrom is a process for producing colorized images from black-and-white photographic negatives via the direct photographic transfer of a negative onto lithographic printing plates. The process is a photographic variant of chromolithography (color lithography).

Recommended reading:

PHOTOCHROMIE VOYAGE EN COULEUR 1876-1914. Paris bibliothèques, Editions Eyrolles






PHOTOMECANICAL PRINTS

A photomechanical print is a mechanical reproduction of a photo image that is printed in ink, often by a printer's press. Photomechanical prints are not the product of a photographic process; their supports are not light-sensitive, and light plays no direct role in image production.

 

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STEREOVIEWS

Stereoviews were created in the late 1850s and reached a peak of popularity in the 1870s. Stereoviews were cheap photographs that simulated a 3D view. In the 1880s, various companies decided to mass-market stereoviews that featured pictures of foreign locations to homes and schools.




TINTYPE

A tintype, also known as ferrotype, is a photograph made by creating a direct positive image on a thin sheet of metal coated with a dark lacquer or enamel and used as the support for the photographic emulsion.




VUE D’OPTIQUE

Vue d'optique (French) or perspective view refers to a genre of etching popular during the second half of the 18th century and into the 19th. Vues d'optique were specifically developed to provide the illusion of depth when viewed through a zograscope or viewers with similar functions.

 

Read more about vue d'optique

 

 

 

Recommended reading:

LE VOCABULAIRE TECHNIQUE DE LA PHOTOGRAPHIE

edited by Anne Cartier-Bresson (Marval/Paris Musées, 2008).

 

 

MORE ABOUT PAPER PRINT

 

ORIGINAL PRINT

An original print is a definitive print from the original negative made by the photographer himself or under his direct supervision. We distinguish two types of original prints depending on when it was produced: vintage prints and late prints.

 

VINTAGE PRINT

A vintage print is an original print produced at a date close to when the photograph was taken.

 

LATE PRINT

A late print is an original print produced a long time after the date when the picture was taken.

 

REPRINT

A reprint is a print made from the original negative, without the author's supervision.

 

COPY PRINT

A copy print is a reproduction from an original made in the same value.

 

WORK PRINT

A work print is made to choose the different characteristics desired for the definitive print.

  

COLLECTOR'S PRINT / EXHIBITION PRINT

These prints are original prints made with a view to selling or exhibiting them. In the latter case, the print is usually returned to the artist after the exhibition.

  

EDITION PRINT

Print made for publication obtained by a photo-mechanical process, under the photographer's supervision.

 

PRESS PRINT

Physical print intended to be reproduced in a printed document.

 

  

SALT PRINT

The salt print was the dominant paper-based photographic process for producing positive prints during the period from 1839 through approximately 1860.